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Full text of "Report of the Food problem committee. March, 1918"

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Commerce and Indus tiy 
association of New 
York. Food problem 
committee 

Rejort of* the Food 
problem committee 




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REPORT 

OF THE 

FOOD PROBLEM 
COMMITTEE 



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March. 1918 







REPORT 

OF THE 

FOOD PROBLEM 
COMMITTEE 



March. 1918 



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^ 908filS 

GREATER NEW YORK'S 
THIRTY MILLION MEALS A DAY 



FOOD is absolutely essential to the health and welfare of 
ten million people in the Greater New York Distributing 

District. 

CONDITIONS are unsatisfactory and serious. 

IMPROVEMENT seems to be slow and hard to obtain. 
CONFUSION exists everywhere. 

UNDERSTANDING of the Situation and a SOLUTION 
of detailed problems depend on CO-OPERATION OF ALL 
FACTORS. 

'The Merchants' Association, through its Food Problem 
Committee, presents to you a fifteen minutes' discussion of : 

1st— What The Food Problem Is. 
2nd— What Has Been Done In The Past. 
3rd — What The Present Situation Is. 
4th_What Should Be Done In The Future. 



THE FOOD PROBLEM 

IN GENERAL , 
and particularly in 

NEW YORK CITY 



Merchants* The Merchants' Association of New York has 
Asssociation more than five thousand Members, including 
Interested merchants, manufacturers, bankers, railroad, pro- 
fessional and warehouse men, all large employers of labor, in- 
terested in the Food Problem and in a solution which will be 
beneficial to the consuming public. 

Food Problem At the earnest solicitation of many of its Mem- 
Comnuttee bers, a Committee was appointed in April, 

Appointed ^g^y^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ analyze the Food Problem, 

with the general idea that Production should be stimulated. 
It was obvious that the Farmer should be paid an adequate 
price for his product; that necessary capital, labor, seed and 
fertilizer should be provided and methods devised to encour- 
age economic and efficient methods of Transportation, Distri- 
bution and Consumption. 

PERSONNEL OF COMMITTEE 

The following Committee was appointed : 

Mr. J. F. Bermingham, President of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western Coal Company. 

Mr. Lincoln Cromwell, William Iselin & Company. (Dry 
Goods Merchants.) 

Mr. Harold Godwin, Roslyn, Long Island. 

Mr. Horace Havemeyer, President of Havemeyers & Elder, 
Inc., and Director of the Brooklyn Elastern District Terminal. 

Dr. O. S. Morgan, Professor of Agriculture, Department of 
Agriculture, Columbia University. 

Mr. William Fellowes Morgan, President of The Merchants' 
Association of New York. 



Mr. Lewis E. Pierson, Chairman of the Board of Directors, 
Irving National Bank. 

Mr. S. Frederic Taylor, Truett, Taylor & Bonneau, Inc. 
(Mining and Engineering.) 

Mr. John H. Love, Graupner, Love & Lamprecht, Selling 
Agents, and interested in the manufacture of worsteds and 
woolens ; also Chairman of the Food Administration of the U. S. 
Chamber of Commerce; Member of Mayor Mitchel's Milk Com- 
mittee and Member of Executive Committee of the Food Council 
of New York City. 

EXECUTIVE STAFF 

The Committee organized with Mr. John H. Love as Chair- 
man, and immediately employed a paid, experienced staff. Mr. 
John C. Orcutt, Secretary, was formerly with the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce, and conducted their 1915 Milk Inves- 
tigation. Mr. W. E. Evans, Special Assistant, was formerly 
Principal of the Alden, N. Y., Agricultural High School. Both 
have had extensive experience in Food Production and Dis- 
tribution. 



THE PLAN PURSUED 

The Committee determined to : 

1. Find out what previous investigations had been made 

and examine available data. 

2. Acquaint itself with the various PHASES and FAC- 

TORS of the Food Problem. 

3. Analyze the Food Problem clearly. 

4. Determine what could be done to bring about an UN- 

DERSTANDING and IMPROVEMENT of present 
conditions. 

5. Report its findings, place the data and information 

collected before the public and offer it to the Food 
Administration Officials whose appointments were an- 
ticipated. 



BRIEF SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS SHOWN IN PREVIOUS REPORTS 

J906 MAYOR McCLELLAN'S PUSH-CART COMMISSION. Lawrence Veiller. 1916. REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF FOODS AND MARKETS. J. J. Dillon, 1917. REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND 

Chairman (Publislied by the City but out of print). Commissioner. (May be obtained from Commissioner of Foods and Mar- PRICES FOR NEW YORK STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
Made recommendation with respect to licenses and districts where push- kets, Albany, N. Y.). Harry Balfe, Chairman. (Published by the New York Chamber of Corn- 
cans are to be permitted. BELIEVES merce. New York City.) 

1912. GOVERNOR DIX'S STATE FOOD INVESTIGATION COMMISSION. , AHvanr, in fnoH nrires fn rnnsiimer unreasonable and excessive '' Studied food conditions. Gave a valuable tabulation of food products 

COMMITTEE ON MARKETS, PRICES AND COSTS. WilUam Church '■ '^"vance m tooo paces to consumer unreasonanie ana excessive. """l^.^, "'^° N=" York City each week. (Compiled by the Department of 

Osborn, Chairman. (Published by Charles P. Young, 19 Beaver Street, 2. A system of distnbutmg milk through local grocery, butcher and deli- Health): 

New York City) catessen stores could be developed. Dairy Products (other tlian milk) 760 carloads 

RECOMMENDED ' 3. The City needs large terminal markets-three or four. K i:::::::::.;;::;;:: i.::::.::::: i;:;::::::::::::;;:;:::;;:;;:::; ''^ ~ 

1. "That a large retail unit or food department store buying direct, receiv- 4. Cold storage facilities for City are inadequate. Lvve^^Stock 518 ;; 

ing direct and selling direct, be accepted as the most economic type." 5. Distributers are operating uneconomically. Grain and T\onr'.'.'.'.['.. '.'.'.. .'.'.'.'/.'.'.'/.'.'.'.'.'.'.'„'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.''.' 2,160 " 

^ "That the railroad and steamshio lines entering our cities should be Fruita '750 " 

encouraged and reouired to orovde adeouale terminal ficilities " "IS- NEW YORK STATE JOINT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ON DAIRY Vegetables 1,636 " 

3 That wholS pricrsi^^^ PRODUCTS Livfe STOCK AND POULTRY. Charles W Wicks. ^^ciiii' - — y --:: — - ■.■:.■■ V. i^ " 

lots suitable for purchase by retailers, conducted under the auspices of the Chairman. (Every interested person should obtain a copy from the Com- Sea Food .■.:.■.■.■.■.■■■ 32 " 

City or of a public organization." missioner of Agriculture, Albany, N. Y. Price, 25 cents). ,1261 " weekl; 

4. "That City charters be amended to provide for a Department of Held public hearings in forty-seven localities in the State, making special °^ ^'^23 " daily 
Markets." inquiry as to the Milk Situation. The findings, containing most valuable infor- , 2. Concluded that law of supply and demand was responsible for present 

5. "That accurate statements of market needs and prices should be sent mation, were published by the State in January, 1917, in a volume containing prices and conditions. 

to producers: that they should be protected from extortion and offered facil- nearly nine hundred pages. Its study was the most exhaustive ever made. The jgjy REPORT OF GOVERNORS' TRI-STATE MILK COMMISSION (AP 

ities for marketing." conclusions and comments of the Committee are given after each analysis and '^ POINTED BY THE GOVERNORS OF PENNSYLVANIA, MARY- 

1913. MAYOR GAYNOR'S MARKET COMMISSION. Cyrus C. Miller, Chair- ^^ '°° "=ns"iy to fe summarized here. LAND AND DELAWARE). C. L. King, Chairman. (May be obtained 

man. George McAneny. John Purroy Mitchel. (Published by J. J. Little 1917. JOINT REPORT ON FOODS AND MARKETS. GOVERNOR WHIT- from the Secretary of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pa.). 

& Ives Company, New York City). MAN'S MARKET COMMISSION. MAYOR MITCHEL'S FOOD RECOMMENDED 

RECOMMENDED SUPPLY COMMITTEE. WICKS LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE. 1. Milk distribution be regarded as a public utility. 

1. Wholesale terminal markets, rather than retail markets, in each of the (.Attached as an Appendix to Report of Joint Legislative Committee on 2. Common carriers make available to the press each week the total 
five boroughs. Elaborate plans and estimates submitted. Dairy Products, Live Stock and Poultry). receipts of milk. 

2. Creation of a Department of Markets under a board of Market Com- Dt7(-miTnTirMT^r-r\ ' ^- Milk testers be licensed. 

missioners. The Report includes summaries of markets and market conditions KtLUMMllNlJliU 4 inspectors be appointed by the State Board of Agriculture, 

in many American and European cities. Retail markets in large cities were 1. * Establishment of a broadened State Department of Markets under a 5. Permits or licenses be issued to Producers, Distributers and Receivers 

commented on. single Commissioner. of milk. 

19H. MAYOR MITCHEL'S FOOD SUPPLY COMMITTEE. George W. Per- 2. * Appointment of Municipal Market Commission for each city. 6. Uniform grades of milk be adopted. ,,• j ,• , ,. 

kins. Chairman. 3. Appointment of an Inter-state Market Commissioner. Hsn^'sJo'f IlllnC" requirements be 3}4%. Finds little hope for 

1. Carried on an educational campaign on food values by distributing bul- 4 * Establishment of a State Board of Foods and Markets Disposal or surplus, 

letins through public schools, newspapers and other sources. Actively inter- , ^"aoiisnment 01 a 3ta e coara 01 fooas ana Markets. ^^^^ MAYOR MITCHEL'S MILK COMMITTEE. Dr. Charles E. North, Chair- 

ested in legislation, advocating many laws. .5- f "'"''??.="' °' Donnelly Act so as to exempt Farmers Co-operative ^^^ .Appointed by Mayor Mitchel in October to investigate and report on: 

Buying and Selling Agencies and permitting Co-operative Dealings bv Pro- 1 t .-»;,■., .,( ,1, * ■ ,. ^ ^ a ■ ^c ™-n i^^ o . ^^ 

1915. REPORT ON MARKET SYSTEM FOR NEW YORK CITY AND OPEN ducers' and Distributers' Organizations. e n gb uy r-ro 1 j„s^„fication o^f the recent increased price of milk from 9c to 14c per 

dlnt'^Mfrlus M^^ltoks'^7pi'[blished'"b^*M? V's^^wn PMud^^^ !'''• ANALYSIS OF JOINT REPORT ON FOODS AND MARKETS OF """^ 2. ^Advilabifitrof' the establishment of Municipal Milk Depots. 

Company. New York City) r-rinting « umamu GOVERNOR WHITMAN'S MARKET COMMISSION AND OTHERS. The Committee held numerous hearings of Producers. Distributers. Con- 

DirrnMMT7 vrtTTT^ ' ^y ^' ^- McElheny, Jr., President of the American Fruit and Produce sumers :ind Agricultural and Food Experts, and made special investigations 

Kb.LUM.Mh.r.ut.Li Auction Association. (Published by the American Fruit and Produce of details. 

1. E.Slablisnmpnl oi temporary open markets. Anrtinn At;qoriatinn 204 FranWlin ^trpct Npw VnrL- rJtirl /^/-\Mi"T TTC-Tz-iXTc 

2. A THOROUGH STUDY. TABULATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE rPnTnf A,u VhTr^^^^^^ r h w .v, CONCLUSIONS ,,,,,, 

CITY'S FOOD PROBLEM roints out tnat recommenaations made would not accomplish what the 1. Milk is the most valuable and the cheapest of human foods even at 

. ^ . . , . . , .- proposers desired. nr^Qpnt nrirp'^ 

dollars are'spem in ,?rmi'narwllehlus°es an" oTher° proTrtie^s''"" "'""°"' °' 2 No new legislation needed. 'I For drinking purposes New York City now uses about 700,000 quarts 

4. MAKING A MAP OF THE ENTIRE CITY, WHICH WOULD ^- Encouragement of private enterprises. daily. The City should use about 2,000.000 quarts dally for drinking in an ideal 
SHOW, AT A GLANCE, THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF ALL PIERS, *■ Desirability of education of Producer and Consumer. "'"3 ™ , .,. „„duction at present prices is 7 cents oer Quart and 
SANnrpn'-iT pl'^dkl-mN?"'' QUANTITY OF FOOD SUPPLIES 5, Necessity for action by the public. „, price'\ske1 Sy "hl'^'a^ymen's" Lea'gu" a"re ?u"tified "" """' 
HANDLED Al h,ALH PIJINI. 4 .j.^^ ^^^^ ^j distribution as shown by the dealers' accounts is justified and 

5. Obtaining a knowledge of the source of any food supply and distance .L.„, „,erioB thi. legialation are now in effect, not large enough to prevent business losses, 
from the city. ,,,,,. . 5. The cost of production can be reduced by 

er ng%he"c„est°on aHo what"r'^ur'"t'"'^lT™ld' °' *'''°'°°°'™'' ^""'°"' (a) Eliminating low-producing cows. 

7. That terminal markets should be provided and the market problem <^' C^leclw". huvll^ of J^t 

solved without the investment of large sums of money by the Citv by per- ^ ' <_oiiective Duying oi grain. 

suading or requiring the railroad companies to improve existing terminal facil- 6. The cost of distribution can be reduced by abolishing competition and 

ities, somewhat in line with the remarkable development of passenger depots. duplication through centralizing the distributing system into a single company 

or public service corporation. 
,,w^ Within five years over ten separate investigations and reports have been made. All conclude that (1) the situation is unsatisfactory and (2) something should be done. There was no 

^^ unanimity of opimon as to what should be done and a growing unrest prevails. The public is more perplexed than ever as to correct procedure and the problem remains unsolved. 

I'repared by the FOOD PROBLEM COMMITTEE of THE MERCHANTS' 



Examination of Reports of Previous 
Commissions and Committees 

To avoid duplication of work, this Committee first studied 
the work of other committees, the agencies then in operation 
and the actual results accomplished. 

Twelve Within the last ten years at least twelve commis- 
Previous sions and committees have made investigations, 
^^°^ ^ analyses and reports of the Food Situation. One 
committee would favor a certain project, while the next 
one would criticise it and recommend another. Proposi- 
tions to establish public, retail and wholesale terminal markets 
were presented periodically and all sorts of new food boards 
and commissions were suggested. The State Legislature and 
the City Government have adopted many of the suggestions 
contained in these reports, but still our Problem grows more 
acute and complicated. 

It must be clearly understood that although the cost of food 
products has gradually increased and there appears to be little 
immediate relief in sight, these committees have done good 
work by publishing information on the situation, and we can 
only surmise what would be the condition had no work been 
done at all. They have performed a service of inestimable 
value, and although it cannot be measured by any set of 
figures or statistics, the evident sincerity of purpose and hard 
work done by these committees warrant due appreciation. 
{See attached chart for brief summaries of these Reports.) 



BOOKS WITH FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATION 

Should Be Read It is suggested to those who wish to study 
^y ^^ the Food Problem in detail that besides the 

n eres e twelve Reports referred to, they study the 

following books, which contain fundamental information on 
Production. Transportation, Marketing and consumption of 
food products : 

1. "Farm Management," by Professor George F. Warren 
of Cornell University. 



2. "The Marketing of Farm Products/* by Professor L. H. 

D. Weld of Yale University. 

3. "Lower Living Costs in Cities," by Professor Clyde L 

King of the University of Pennsylvania. 



PERSONAL INTERVIEWS 

With Farmers, Railroad Men, Distributers, Leaders of Con- 
sumers, and Educational and Regulative Agencies 

Interviews It was necessary first to secure information and 

With People advice from men and women of long experience, 
who were familiar with the different PHASES 
of the Food Problem. The Committee went to Washington 
to meet the Officials of the Federal Food Administration and 
Department of Agriculture. Conferences were held with the 
Mayor, State Commissioner of Foods and Markets, Commis- 
sioner of Weights and Measures, Commissioner of Health 
and other State and City Officials. 

They next conferred with the Presidents and other Officials 
of Railroads entering New York City and with about one 
hundred Distributers representing the following organizea 
food agencies: 

Associations Affiliated With the New York Food Distributers 

Association : 

1. Salt Fish Trade. 

2. Produce Exchange. 

3. Fresh Fish Trade. 

4. Society of Restaurateurs. 

5. New York Fruit Exchange. 

6. Wholesale Meat Distributers. 

7. American Cranberry Exchange. 

8. New York Mercantile Exchange. 

9. New York Milk Conference Board. 

10. Delicatessen Dealers' Association. 

11. New York State Hotel Association. 

12. Hotel Association of New York City. 

13. New York Butter and Egg Exchange. 

14. Dried Fruit Association of New York. 

15. Master Bakers' Federation of America. 

16. New York Retail Grocers' Association. 



17. International Apple Shippers' Association. 

18. New York State Cold Storage Association. 

19. New York Wholesale Grocers' Association. 

20. Queens Borough Retail Grocers' Association. 

21. New York State Association of Master Bakers. 

22. New York City Wholesale Bakers' Association. 

23. New York State Association of Retail Grocers. 

24. United Retail Grocers' Association of Brooklyn. 

25. New York Fruit and Produce Trade Association. 

26. Manhattan and Bronx Retail Grocers' Association. 

27. The American Fruit and Produce Auction Association. 

28. Federation of Hebrew Retail Kosher Butchers' Association, 

29. National Wholesale Grocers' Association of the United States. 

30. New York Branch of National League of Commission Merchants. 



Committee The Committee went to Albany, met the Gov- 

^^^^*^ ernor, the Commissioner of Agriculture and 

^ , T- the Governor's Food Supply Commission, and 

On the Farms ,. , . . r -T at i 

oitered the services of ihe Merchants Associ- 
ation to assist Country Agencies in their efforts to increase 
Production. The Committee attended the Syracuse Confer- 
ence of Farmers, visited the Faculty of the Agricultural Col- 
lege of Cornell University and spent several weeks in trips 
throughout the agricultural districts of New York State. A 
trip through the five fruit producing counties of Northwestern 
New York was made with the State Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion, and much information was obtained relative to produc- 
ing, grading and shipping of farm products, with particular 
reference to fruits, vegetables and milk. 



Country The Governor's Food Supply Commission, with 

Agencies the Officials of the State Agricultural College, 

^ .t. r^'. Geneva Experiment Station and prominent Pro- 
to the City ^ ^ 

diicers and Distributers throughout the State, 
were invited to a conference in New York City, where a din- 
ner was arranged and a general discussion of the different 
problems took place. .Afterwards, from midnight until morn- 
ing, the Food Distributers of New York City took the en- 
tire party through the steamship and railroad terminals and 
markets, where food products are received from all parts of 
the world and sold to Wholesale and Retail Distributers in 
the City and suburbs. 



ANALYSIS OF THE FOOD 


The Co 


PROBLEM 


mmittee, after some preliminary study, classi- 


fied the 


Food Problem into five Phases and seven 


Factors : 






PHASES: 


1. 


PRODUCTION 


2. 


MANUFACTURING AND PRESERVING. 


3. 


TRANSPORTATION. 


4. 


MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION. 


5. 


CONSUMPTION. 




FACTORS: 


1. 


PRODUCERS. 


2. 


MANUFACTURERS. 


3. 


CARRIERS. 


4. 


DISTRIBUTERS. 


5. 


CONSUMERS. 


6. 


EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES. 


7. 


REGULATIVE AGENCIES. 


An analytical chart showing all the Phases and sub- 


divisions c 


)f the Food Problem is attached. The Commit- 


tee considered this exhibit essential to show the correla- 


tion of th( 


t whole Food Problem and thereby enable the 


avoidance 


of hasty conclusions and impractical sug- 


gestions. 





8 



OUTLINE OF FOOD PROBLEM 



A— PRODUCTION 



I— LAND 

A. CULTIVATED. 

B. UNCULTIVATED: 



n— LABOR 

A. MAN POWER: 

1. OWNERS: 

a. On Farm. 

b. Retired. 

2. TENANTS: 

a. On Shares. 

b. Cash Rent. 

3. HIRED HELP (MALE AND 

FEMALE): 

a. Experienced. 

b. Inexperienced. 

c. Regular. 

d. Seasonal. 

e. Wages. 

f. Housing. 

g. Supply and Distribution. 

4. FARMER'S FAMILY. 

B. HORSE POWER: 

1. HOME RAISED. 

2. PURCHASED. 

3. HIRED. 

C. MACHINE POWER: 

1. KIND: 

a. Hand. 

b. Horse. 

c. Gasoline. 

d. Coal. 

2. SOURCE OF SUPPLY: 

a. Local Dealer. 

b. District Jobbing House. 

c. Grange Purchasing Agent. 

d. Farm Bureau. 

e. N. Y. State Food Commission. 

f. Voluntary Organizations. 

D. COMMUNITY USE OF 
POWER. 

lU— MATERIALS 

A. FEED, SEED AND FERTIL- 
IZER: 

I. SOURCE OF SUPPLY: 

a. Farm Produced. 

b. Local Dealer. 

c. District Jobbing House. 

d. Grange Purchasing Agent. 

e. Farm Bureau. 

f. Voluntary Organizations. 

B. OTHER MATERIALS: 

1. CEMENT, FENCING AND 
SPRAY MATERIALS. 

IV— FARM PRODUCTS 

A. PLANTS: 

1. HAY AND OTHER FORAGE 

CROPS. 

2. GRAIN. 

3. SILAGE. 

4. VEGETABLES. 

5. FRUITS AND BERRIES. 

B. ANIMALS: 

1. MILK AND PRODUCTS. 

2. MEAT AND PRODUCTS. 

3. POULTRY AND EGGS. 

4. YOUNG STOCK. 

V— HOME GARDENS 

A. VEGETABLES. 

B. FRUITS AND BERRIES. 

VI— FINANCIAL AID 

A. TEMPORARY AGENCIES: 

1. PATRIOTIC LOAN FUND. 

2. OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. 

B. PERMANENT AGENCIES: 

1. FEDERAL LOAN. 

2. LOCAL BANKS. 

Vn— CONSERVATION ON 
FARM 



B— MANUFACTURING AND 
PRESERVING 



I— COMMERCIAL 

A. GRAIN PRODUCTS: 

1. FLOUR. 

2. CEREALS. 

3. OILS. 

4. STARCH. 

5. SUGARS. 

6 BEVERAGES. 

7. SYRUPS. 

8. STOCK FEEDS: 

a. Corn Feeds. 

b. Wheat Feeds. 

c Distillers' and Brewers' 

Grains. ^ „,, 

d. Cottonseed and Linseed Oil 
Meal. 

B. FORAGE PRODUCTS: 

1. BALED HAYS. 

2. CHOPPED ALFALFA. 

C. VEGETABLES AND FRUITS: 

1. PRESERVING: 

a. Canning. 

b. Pickling. 

c. Jellies and Conserrea. 

d. Dehydration. 

D. LIVE STOCK PRODUCTS: 

1. PACKERS' PRODUCTS. 

2. MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS. 

3. POULTRY AND PRODUCTS. 

4. COLD STORAGE. 

E. FACTORIES: 

1. LOCATION. 

2. SIZE AND CAPACITY. 

3. OUTPUT. 

F. CONTAINERS: 

1. TIN, GLASS, WOOD AND 
PAPER: 

a. Sources of Supply. 

b. Demand. 

c. Substitution of One for Other. 

G. LABOR: 

1. SKILLED. 

2. UNSKILLED. 

3. SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 

4. WAGES. 

5. HOUSING. 

6. TRANSPORT,, TION. 

7. DISTRIBUTK*> 

8. ARMY ANn \.\VY DRAFT. 

9. DECREASE OF IMMIGRATION. 
H. INSPECTION. 

II— HOME & COMMUNITY 

A. KNOWLEDGE: 
1. SOURCE? ; 

a. Colleges and Schools. 

b. Departments of Agricnltnre. 

c. Publications. 

d. Farm Bureaus. 

e. Canning Clubs. 

f. Voluntary Organizations. 

g. Privaie Enterprises: 

1. Manufacturers. 

2. Railroads. 

3. Public Utility Companies. 

B. MATERIALS: 

1. VEGETABLES: 

a. Canning: 

I. Sterilization. 
. 2. Pickling. 

b. Dehydration. 

2. FRUITS AND BERRIES: 

a. Canning : 

I. Sterilization. 

2- Pickling. 

3. Jellies and Conserves. 

b. Dehydration. 
c Evaporation. 

3. CONTAINERS: 

a. Tin. Glass, Wood and Paper. 
1. Sources of Supply. 

2- Demand. 

3- Substitution of One for 

Other. 

C. DISPOSAL: 

1. HOME CONSUMPTION. 

2. SALE OF SURPLUS. 

HI- ORGANIZATION 

A. CANNERS' AggnriATIONS. 



C— TRANSPORTATION 



-RAIL 

A. FREIGHT: 

1. ELECTRIC. 

2. STEAM. 

3. CAR DEMAND. 

4. CAR SUPPLY. 

5. EXPEDITIOUS SERVICE. 

6. CO-OPERATION BETWEEN: 

a. Producers. 

b. Carriers. 

c. Inspectors. 

d. Receivers. 

7. RATES: 

a. Car Lots. 

b. Leas Than Car Lots. 

8. ROUTES: 
a. Diversion Points. 

9. TERMINAL FACILI'HES. 

B. EXPRESS: 

1. RATES: 

a. Prepaid. 

b. Postpaid, 
c C. O. D. 

2. EXPEDITIOUS SERVICE. 

3. ZONES. 

C. MAIL: 

1. PARCELS POST. 

2. REGISTERED. 

3. C. O. D. 

-WATER 

A. ROUTES: 

1. CANAL. 

2. RIVER. 

3. LAKE. 

4. OCEAN. 

B. RATES: 

1. CARGOES. 

2. LESS THAN CARGOES. 

C. TONNAGE: 

1. PRESENT. 

2. FUTURE. 

3. MEANS OF INCREASLNG. 

m— MOTOR TRUCKS 

A. COUNTRY USE: 

1. FROM FARMS TO: 

a. Consumers. 

b. Public Markets. 

c. Railway Stations. 

d. Manufacturing Plants. 

B. CITY USE: 

1. FROM TERMINALS TO: 

a. Wholesale Receiver. 

b. City Branches. 



n- 



A. ENTRA-STATE. 

B. INTER-STATE. 



IV— DOMESTIC 

A. ENTRA-S 

B. INTER-S' 

V— FOREIGN 
VI 



A. EXPORT. 

B. IMPORT. 

-DAMAGE ADJUST- 
MENTS 

A. BY CONSIGNOR. 

B. BY CONSIGNEE. 

C. BY CARRIER. 

vn— GOVERNMENT CON- 
TROL 

A. RAILROADS. 

B. EXPRESS COMPANIES. 

C. STEAMSHIP LINES. 

D. FOREIGN TRADE. 

E. DOMESTIC TRADE. 

F. PRIORITY SHIPMENTS. 

G. ELIMINATION OF SOME: 

1. PULLMAN SERVICE. 

2. PASSENGER SERVICE. 

H. EXTENSION OF SOME: 
1. FREIGHT SERVICE. 



D— Marketing and 

DISTRIBUTING 



I— COUNTRY 

A. GRADES: 



1. FIRSTS. 

2. SECONDS. 

3. CULLS. 

4. LAW GOVERNING. 

B. CONTAINERS: 

1. CRATES. 

2. BARBELS. 

3. BASKETS. 

4. BAGS. 

5. STANDARDIZATION. 

6. LAW GOVERNING. 

C. MARKET ADVICES: 

1. LOCATION AND LIST OF: 

a. Buyers. 

b. Agents. 

c. Bonded Commission Men. 

D. LOCAL STORAGE FACIL- 
ITIES: 

1. ON THE FARM. 

2. DRY STORAGE IN COMMUNI- 

TIES. 

3. CO-OPERATIVE STORAGE IN 

COMMUNITIES. 

4. COLD STORAGE IN COMMU- 

NITIES. 

E. FINANCES: 

1. LOANS ON STORED PRO- 
DUCE: 

a. From Local Sources. 

b. Advances by Buyers. 

c. Advances by Cold Storage 

Company. 

d. Bank Advances. 

e. Payments to Producers. 

F. PRICE-FIXING: 

1. FEDERAL REGULATION. 

G. CARING FOR EXCESS PRO- 
DUCE: 

1. DEHYDRATION OF VEGETA- 

BLES. 

2. DEHYDRATION OF FRUITS. 

3. MILK: 

a. Condensed. 

b. Evaporated. 

4. MANUFACTURE OF: 

a. Butter. 

b. Clieese. 

H. DELIVERY: 

1. REGULAR ROUTES. 

2. CO-OPERATIVE. 

3. SPECIAL CHARGE FOR. 

4. STREET CONGESTION. 

5. CENTRALIZED DELIVERY. 

L TELEPHONE: 

1. MEANS OF MAKING PUR- 
CHASES. 



n— ciT\ 



A. DISTRIBUTERS: 

1. AGENCIES. 

2. ASSOCIATIONS. 

3. EXCHANGES. 

B. MARKETS: 

1. TERMINAL. 

2. WHOLESALE. 

3. JOBBERS. 

4. RETAIL. 

C. STORAGE FACILITIES: 

1. LIST OF STOREHOUSES. 

2. CAPACITY. 

3. REGULATION. 

4. RATES. 

D. MARKET ADVICES: 

1. COUNTRY PRODUCTION 

2. PROBABLE CONSUMPTION. 

3. DAILY MARKET PRICES. 

E. FINANCING: 

1. LOANS TO PRODUCERS. 

2. CREDITS. 

a. Retailers. 

b. Consumers. 

3. FIXED CAPITAL. 
(Federal Land Banks.) 

4. OPERATING CAPITAL. 
^Seasonal Credit.) 



E— CONSUMPTION 



I— FOOD 

A. PERISHABLES. 

B. NON-PERISHABLES. 

C. SEMI-PERISHABLES. 

D. MANUFACTURED. 

E. STAPLES. 

n— CONSUMERS 

A. NATIONALITY: 

1. AMERICAN. 

2. ENGLISH. 

3. GERMAN. 

4. FRENCH. 
6. POLISH. 

6. SWISS. 

7. ITALIAN. 

8. HEBREW. 

9. NEGROES. 
10. GREEK. 
U. SPANISH. 

12. PORTUGUESE. 

13. CHINE.se. 

14. JAPANESE. 

15. RUSSIAN. 

B. CUSTOMS: 

1. RELIGIOUS. 

2. NATIONAL (FOREIGN). 

3. SECTIONAL: 

a. New England. 

b. Southern. 

c Middle Atlantic 
d. West. 

C. TASTES. 

D. LIVING QUARTERS: 

1. SINGLE DETACHED HOMES. 

2. SEMI-DETACHED HOMES. 

3. SINGLE ATTACHED HOMES. 

4. TWO-FAMIIY HOUSES. 

5. THREE-FAMILY HOUSES. 

6. NON-ELEVATOR APART- 

MENTS. 

7. ELEVATOR APARTMENTS. 

E. ANNUAL INCOMES: 

1. $300 to $600. 

2. 600 to 900. 

3. 900 to 1200. 

4. 1200 to 1500. 

5. 1500 to 2500. 

6. 2500 to 4000. 

7. 4000 to 5000. 

F. CONSUMERS' ORGANIZA- 
TIONS. 

m— SOURCES OF SUPPLY 

A. GROCERS: 

1. DRY GROCER. 

2. GREEN GROCER. 

3. BUTTER AND EGGS. 

4. TEA AND COFFEE. 

5. DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

6. COMPLETE GROCER. 

7. CHAIN STORES. 

8. DEPARTMENT STORES. 

B. BUTCHERS: 

1. FRESH AND SALT MEATS. 

2. SEA FOOD. 

3. PORK PRODUCTS. 

4. MEAT AND FISH. 

C. GENERAL PROVTSIONER: 

D. FRUITERERS: 

1. FANCY FRUIT STORES. 

2. FRUIT STAND. 

3. FRUIT VENDER. 

E. SPECIALTIES: 

1. DELICATESSEN. 

2. ROTISSEBIES. 

3. BAKERIES. 

F. SERVED TO BE EATEN: 

1. LUNCH COUNTERS. 

2. ARM CHAIR LUNCH. 

3. TABLE RESTAURANT. 

a. Table d'hote. 

b. A la carte. 

4. CABARET RESTAURANT. 

5. HOTELS: 

a. European Plan: 

1. Dining Room. 

2. Restaurant. 

3. GrilL 



•DEMIES: 
nsects. 
Insects. 
iISEASES: 
losis (Respiratory), 
a (Dairy Cows). 
(Hogs), 
ea (Poultry). 
ESTS: 
ig AnimalB. 
ig Planta. 

y Spraying. 
y Cultivation, 
y Rotation. 

3' ORGANI- 



!AUS. 

CIATIONS. 

ASSOCIATIONS. 

•CIATIONS. 

1 ASSOCIATIONS. 

RODUCTS 



!RS. 

;s. 
;alers. 

5I0N 

3. 

■) COMPANIES. 

TE ON 

CURING OF 

E THRESHING 

JDLING. 
OR LACK OP 
ACILITIES. 
OR FAILURE TO 

HRINKAGE DUR- 
iE. 



ERS' ASSOCIATIONS. 

IV— WASTE OF OOD PROD- 
UCTS THRCf JGH 

A. FAILURE TO USE BY-PROD- 
UCTS. 

B. UNSANITARY HANDLING: 

1. OF PRODUCT. 

2. OF CONTAINERS. 

C. CARELESS HANDLING. 

D. IMPROPER HOME CANNING. 



IMPROPER ICING. 
FAILURE OR NEGLECT TO 
ICE AT: 

1. STARTING POINT. 

2. ICING STATIONS. 

FAULTY REFRIGERATION. 
FAULTY HEATING. 
CARS NOT FROST-PROOF. 
UNDUE DELAYS. 
WRECKS. 

OVERLOADING CARS. 
IMPROPER PLACING OF 
PACKAGES IN CARS. 
ROUGH HANDLING. 
BAD ORDER CARS. 
DELAYED INTERCHANGES 
OF CARS. 



A. LEGITIMATE. 

B. HOARDING. 

C. PROFITEERING. 

IV— DISTPIBUTERS' ORGAN- 
IZATIONS 

A. N. Y. FOOD DISTRIBUTERS' 
ASSOCIATION: 

1. EXCHANGES. 

2. TRADE ASSOCIATIONS: 

3. WHOLESALE: 

a. Grocers. 

b. Meat Packers, 
c Fiflh Dealers. 

d. Bakers. 

e. Milk Dealers. 

4. RETAIL: 

a. Grocers. 

b. Butchers, 
c Bakers. 

d. Delicatessen Dealers. 
6. HOTELS. 

6. RESTAURANTS. 

7. AUCTION COMPANIES. 

V— WA8TE OF FOOD 
THROUGH 

A. 'TRATTAGE." 

B. OVERSTOCKING. 

C. CARELESS HANDLING. 

D. TRIMMING. 

E. POOR STORAGE FACILITIES. 

F. CARELESS DELIVERY SER- 
VICE. 

G. WASTEFUL DISPLAYS. 



9. B 

G. MIS{ 

1. P 



IV— CONSl 



C. SUB 

D. PUB 



PREPARED BY THE 

FOOD PROBLEM COMMITTEE 



I — Producers 

Attention was called to three distinct problems that have 
confronted the Farmers for a long time, but which seemed to 
be more serious this year. 

(1) Inadequate Working Capital 

Provision The Government's propaganda to increase pro- 
for Capital, Auction met with a hearty response from the 
p ... Farmers. Many requests were received for loans 

of money with which to buy seed, fertilizer, ma- 
chinery and stock, indicating that the applicants had land 
but lacked capital to work it. Several capitalists, appreciat- 
ing this fact, organized the Patriotic Loan Fund, from 
which a Farmer could borrow on his note up to $150.00, 
providing he were recommended by a local board of three, 
usually composed of the cashier of the local bank and two 
other men appointed by the Master of the Local Grange. Vol- 
untary committees and the New York Food Supply Commis- 
sion furnished seed and fertilizer at cost. The local banks and 
business men assisted financially, possibly not to the satis- 
faction of every Farmer, but they allowed as much money as 
the Farmers were capable of using judiciously and certainly 
all that circumstances warranted. 

(2) Scarcity of Labor 

Reported In the early stages of the Committee's activity, 

Demand for ^|-jg question of Farm Labor began to be agi- 
Labo tated. Reports from the country indicated an 

acute shortage. A census, taken by the school- 
teachers, under the supervision of the County Agricultural 
Agents, showed an unprecedented demand for more than 
twenty thousand farm laborers. The newspapers also pub- 
lished sensational accounts of large acreages lying idle be- 
cause there was no help in sight to ])repare land for the crops. 

Endeavors The Merchants' Association immediately started 
to Assist in ^ canvass of the commercial and manufacturing 
Labo^"^ industries of New York City to determine how 
many employees having previous farm experi- 
ence could be released and sent to the country for periods of 



two to six weeks to assist in planting, cultivating and harvest- 
ing crops. Several hundred men were registered and agreed 
to work on farms during their vacations. Similar action was 
taken in several other large manufacturing cities throughout 
the State. 

Looked Into In the meantime we visited the various 
Up-State branches of the State Bureau of Employ- 

Conditions ^g^^ located in New York City, Albany, 

Oswego, Auburn, Rochester, Syracuse and Buffalo, and after 
interviewing many Farmers and Farm Bureau Alanagers in 
three representative sections : Randolph, Cattaraugus County ; 
Walton, Delaware County; and Norwich, Chenango County; 
we were convinced that the demand for farm labor was greatly 
overestimated and perhaps ten per cent of the number desig- 
nated by the school census represented actual needs. 

Inexperienced After preparing a special bank for the 
Labor Not ygg q( County Farm Bureau Agents, on 

^^^^^ ® which the Farmer could make specific re- 

quests for labor, we w^ere confronted with a large array of 
agencies all striving to supply labor to Farmers. The Federal, 
State and City Labor Agencies had regularly established 
Labor Bureaus, while the Salvation Army, Boy Scouts, Y. M. 
C. A., Department of Education, Labor Forum and the Ameri- 
can Defense Society had a Labor Bureau of some sort, but 
none seemed to have facilities to cope with the situation. 
Many agencies sent inexperienced men and boys as laborers, 
who were either rejected by Farmers or left of their own 
accord. 

Data Turned About this time the New York Food Sup- 
Over to ply Commission opened two offices in New 

ood bupp y York City and had a representative in each 
Commission ^ , * . , , .- • • , o 

of the Agricultural Counties in the State. 

We immediately turned our data and applications over to this 

Commission rather than add another bureau of our own. 

Agricultural labor, necessary for the production of food, is 

not only high in price, but is becoming very scarce. Labor 

has shifted from the country to the city and industrial districts 

at a most alarming rate and it is difficult to hold men on farms, 

even at present farm labor prices. 

10 



Housing During harvesting, the fruit growers of 

Accommodations Northern New York depend largely upon 
an Important tramps or "hobo" itinerant laborers, who 

seem to understand fruit-picking and per- 
haps are more favored by the producers because they require 
little in the way of comforts of living; but this year there 
seems to be scarcity of even this kind of labor. 

Causes of the Labor Shortage 

The scarcity of labor on farms has been the result of a com- 
bination of factors : 

Higher Wages FIRST: Higher wages with shorter hours and 

and Shorter comparatively light work in clean office build- 

ours m 1^ ^^ factories were allurements which farm- 

Citiea ^, , , . ^. ..... . 

ers sons could not resist. Until the beginning 

of the War ordinary farm labor was paid at an average rate 

of $25.00 per month, with board, lodging and laundry, under 

such living conditions as the farm-house provided. Working 

hours were usually from sunrise to sunset and the chores had 

to be done on Sunday. On some farms, such as dairy and 

poultry, the work of the seven days was much the same. 

No Pay for At the present time, farmers cannot get labor 

Overtime ^t $45.00 per month with board, because of 

^ the demand for laborers in the cities at $3.00 

rarms 

to $6.00 per day of eight hours. Then, too, 

in the cities, men get paid for overtime, at a higher rate, while 

in the country they do not receive extra pay at all. Miners in 

Pennsylvania are making approximately $5.40 per day of eight 

hours. Public Utility Corporations, in some instances, are 

paying $4.50 per day of eight hours for labor, which in 1914 

received $2.10 per day of ten hours. 

THESE ARE ONLY INSTANCES TO SHOW THE 
FUTILITY OF TRYING TO KEEP LABOR ON THE 



FARMS WITH 



1. Less pay, 

2. Longer hours, 

3. Fewer amusements, 

4. Fewer conveniences. 

11 



Trend to SECOND : The advent of the railroads and elec- 
the Cities ^j-j^, lines has, lor many years, been bringing farm 
boys to the cities, attracted by a variety of amusements, bet- 
ter educational facilities and what seemed to them an endless 
round of pleasure. 

The following diagram shows graphically the proportion, 
at the close of each of four decades, people in urban and rural 
districts and also indicates the steady trend from farm to city : 



TREND OF POPULATION 

FROM FARMS 
To CITIES 



URBAN 
RURAL 

URC^AN 
RURAL 

URRAK 
RURAL 

URftAN 

RURAL 



2«?.s-v, 7 8 80 


70.S "/o 




90 


3fc.J% 18 


6 5.^ "/o 1 




^00 


40.5 »/o 1' 


Sf.S "k 






44.3% 


1920 


53,7 »/o 1 



The 1920 Census will probably show a reversal of the pro- 
portions existing in 1900. 

12 



Farmers Go THIRD : Farmers, upon retirement, move to 
to Towns villages and, taking their families with them, ac- 
celerate the trend from country to city. 

Men Enlist or FOURTH: The demand for army and navy 
Are Drafted service, and for workers in munition and other 
factories manufacturing war materials, has caused a general 
shortage of labor in other channels, which is particularly felt 
on the farms. 

(3) Uncertain Marketing Conditions 

Lack of funds and a shortage of labor are perplexing prob- 
lems, but another difficulty confronting the farmer is the un- 
reliable marketing facilities. Farmers have listened patiently 
to Agricultural College men and city press when told how to 
grow two blades of grass where one grew before. W'luit 
they want to know, however, is how to market, at a profit, 
the one blade before they attempt to raise two. It would 
seem that the Federal and State Departments of Agriculture, 
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations might profit- 
ably spend more time on this particular phase of the farmers' 
problems. It is gratifying to notice that this is being done 
by some of the agencies mentioned. 

ORGANIZATION OF FARMERS 

The producers in this country are organized into local, 
county, district, state and national units, such as Granges. 
Farm Bureaus, Fruit, Vegetable, Live Stock, Breeders' and 
Dairy Associations. These Associations are attempting to 
form a State Federation of all Farmers' Organizations, includ- 
ing the Dairymens' League, State Granges and Fruit and 
Vegetable Growers' Associations. 

One of the most efifective is the Federation of Farm Bureaus. 
ALMOST EVERY COUNTY IN THE AGRICULTURAL 
REGION OF THE UNITED STATES HAS AN AGRI- 
CULTURAL AGENT OR FARM BUREAU MANAGER— 
A MAN OF PRACTICAL FARM EXPERIENCE WHO 
HAS HAD SPECIAL TRAINING AT AN AGRICUL- 
TURAL COLLEGE and is employed by a County Agricul- 

13 



tural Association to assist local units of farmers in securing 
better methods of (1) PRODUCTION and (2) MARKET- 
ING. The cost of upkeep of the Farm Bureaus is shared by 
the Federal, State and County Governments, assisted by con- 
tributions from farmers, railroads, Chambers of Commerce 
and banks. At present the farmers are better organized than 
any of the other factors, namely : (2) Manufacturers, (3) Car- 
riers, (4) Distributers, (5) Consumers, (6) Educational Agen- 
cies and (7) Regulative Agencies. 

II — Manufacturers 

Next to the farmers who produce food, the manufacturers 
who prepare, preserve, conserve or convert food products, plav 
a very important part in feeding the world's population. 

(1) Preserving Regular and Surplus Production 

Preserving The manufacturers, by preserving in either tin, 

^°'" Rlass, wood or paper fibre such products as 

Future Use ^^ ', / ^ ^^n 

peas, beans, corn, tomatoes, caulinower, aspara- 
gus, pineapples, peaches, cherries and other fruits, put them 
in a form which will keep for future consumption. They do 
for city consumers what formerly was done by housewives. 

(2) Conserving By-Products 

Probably the greatest field into which the manufacturers 
have entered is the conservation of by-products. The manu- 
facturers in this field have rendered the world a most im- 
portant service. 

By-Products By-products of the meat packing industry 

Now Important ^lone represent an annual saving of millions 
of dollars by the conservation of every particle of the animal 
formerly wasted, including hair, hoofs, horns and bones. 

(3) Converting Raw Materials Into Edible Food 

Raw Products The conversion of raw vegetable and animal 
Serve Two materials into edible foods is another branch 

urposes ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ industry developed within com- 

paratively recent years. Refiners take sugar beets or sugar 

14 



cane and convert them into sugar, starches and syrups. Mil- 
lers convert grains into a great many breakfast cereals, flours 
and starches, using the by-products as feed for stock, par- 
ticularly dairy feeds. For generations milk has been con- 
verted into butter and cheese, v^hile within the last sixty years 
such products as condensed, evaporated and powdered milk 
have been developed. 

(4) Evaporation and Dehydration 

Dehydration in Evaporation of certain fruits, such as apples. 
Experimental apricots, peaches, corn, raisins, figs and dates, 
has been a home industry or a commercial 
process for many years, but dehydration, which must be dis- 
tinguished from evaporation, is of more recent development. 
Many vegetable and fruit products are being successfulh 
dehydrated, but whether the public will learn to use these 
products, which, of course, must compete with all canned 
goods, is debatable. Dehydrated products are useful for sup- 
plying campers, foresters, explorers and miners who get out 
of touch with canned products, or where conservation of 
space is necessary, but until the general public is educated 
to prepare dehydrated products, this class of foods will not 
come into general use. 

A shortage of sugar for preserving fruits, vegetables and 
milk, together with a scarcity of tin, has recently handicapped 
the preserving industry. 

Because the manufacturing industry is organized along 
concentrated lines, many large manufacturers have assumed 
the distribution of their own products to retailers. 



ORGANIZATION OF MANUFACTURERS 

Many manufacturers are members of the National Canners' 
Association or other organizations, such as the American 
Feed Manufacturers' Association, American Specialty Manu- 
facturers' Association, etc. Many firms are members of dis- 
tributing associations. The New York Food Distributers' 
Association is one of the largest and best of these recent 
organizations. 

15 



Ill — Carriers 

Wide Separation Concentration of population in large centers 

of Producing i^-^^ increased the demand for food products 

yVrcas and i i • 

'^ . to such an extent that cit^- consumers can 

Consuming t r i r • +i • 

Centers "^ longer be fed from areas ni the nn- 

mediate vicinity, but are forced to reach out 

to more distant producing territories for their food supply. 

Only fluid milk and a few classes of vegetables continue to 

be produced in sufficient quantities in nearby territory. 



Varied ABOUT NINETY PER CENT of the food 

Products products consumed in Greater New York come 

ppe ong fj-Qj-f-i various states and countries. The peo- 
Distances /^ 

pie of New York City now get cream from 

Quebec ; citrus fruits and vegetables from California, Florida, 
Cuba and Porto Rico ; butter, eggs and other perishables from 
the Middle West ; sugar from the West Indies ; cofifee from 
South America ; eggs from China and fruits from several trop- 
ical countries. 



Refrigeration All this has been made possible by the intro- 
and Heating duction of refrigeration on cars and steamships 
g , . in the hot weather and heating during the 

colder months, so that not only staples but 
very perishable products, such as green vegetables, butter, 
fruits, poultry and meats, can be shipped long distances with- 
out any appreciable deterioration. 



War In the case of food products, particularly perish- 

Conditions ables, quick and continuous transportation are 

Cause ^. , , ... 

General very essential, even when refrigeration or heat 

Congestion '^^^ employed. War demands and cold and stormy 
weather have handicapped the railroads, with the 
result that food deliveries in New York City are at present 
very uncertain even though they receive the best considera- 
tion. 

16 



ORGANIZATION OF CARRIERS 

Transportation companies entering New York City, besides 
being large units in themselves, have formed a Trunk Line 
Association with headquarters in New York City, to deal with 
common problems of transportation. 

Relief The Federal Government has deemed it advisable 

Expected ^q ^^j^g over the operation of all railroads, be- 
lieving that by pooling these interests it could expedite the 
transportation of necessary supplies. Many passenger trains 
have been taken off, while Pullman equipment has been cur- 
tailed to a minimum in an effort to expedite freight traffic. 



Certain It would seem the carriers, including railroads and 
Work steamship companies, with the Trunk Line Associa- 

tion, could form a Joint Committee to unite with a 
Committee of the Distributers' Association and the Federal, 
State and City Departments of Markets : 

a. To make a survey of the channels through which each individual 
food product is carried, 

b. To establish best methods for distribution of each food product 
after arrival at terminals or markets. 



IV — Distributers 

(1) Large Distributing Area 

400,000 People An average of thirteen hundred cars of 
Employed to food products is received daily at the one 

, il-,"^" ^ hundred and twenty-seven terminals in Met- 

1,323 Cars 

of Food Daily ropolitan New York. (See first insert,) These 

products are re-distributed over an area 

having a radius of thirty to forty miles, which embraces 

a population of between nine and ten millions. (See map of 

thirty-mile area.) The stupendous task of distributing this vast 

amount of food engages sixty thousand distributers (see 

Pages 6 and 7), who employ about four hundred thousand 

persons. 

17 



FOOD DISTRIBUTING DISTRICT 

WITH NEW YORK CITY 

AS A CENTER 




Within this radius live between eight and nine million people, 
composed of twenty-eight nationalities, to whom over ten thou- 
sand cars of products a week must be distributed. 

It is obvious that each product and each particular district 
must be considered separately. Considering the whole problem 
at once only produces confusion. Time must be taken to work 
it out in detail. 

18 



(2) Varied Nationalities 

Twenty-eight Twenty-eight nationalities, eight numbering 
^^*^f® over one hundred thousand each and fifteen 

over twenty-five thousand, populate this dis- 
trict. These people have various habits, customs and 
modes of living. Quite often one nationality will eat what 
another will not. Few people realize this cosmopolitan com- 
plication, which does not obtain to such an extent in any 
other center in the world. It has been aptly said that New 
York is not an American city but a city in America com- 
posed of twenty-eight little nations. 

(3) Exceptional Congestion Exists 

A City The congestion of living conditions, due to the 
Within a building of skyscrapers, the confining of manu- 
^ ^ facturing to a small area and the demand for 

help to facilitate import and export shipping, is not dupli- 
cated on any other section of the globe. Some large office 
buildings have over ten thousand persons employed in them. 
They are almost a city within a city. This condition increases 
traffic congestion because people must live within commuting 
distance from office buildings and practically all must be fed 
one meal a day in the immediate vicinity. Consequently a 
large system of restaurants and lunch-rooms has had to be 
established. In addition to regular commuters, it is estimated 
that over one hundred thousand transients visit New York 
City daily and remain from one to ten days. 

(4) Comparison With European Cities 

Same It is often stated that the cost of living in Europe, 

Language under normal conditions, is lower than here, but a 
comj)arison is unfair because : 

a. Eighty-five to ninety per cent of the people in foreign countries 
are of one nationality; have similar habits, tastes and customs 
and speak the same languai?e. 

I). In Europe few buildings are higher than one and one-half times 
the width of the street; consequently the population is not in 
such congested districts as here. 

19 



c. Wages are less. 

d. More economies may be practiced. 

London is the only other large city whose population is comparable 
to that of New York. If the cost of distribution is cheaper there in 
normal times it is due to the fact that the inhabitants have similar 
habits, customs and tastes, and co-operation is obtained more easily. 



(5) Present Facilities 

Ever Previous investigations emphasize the in- 

Increasing adequacy of terminal facilities and wholesale 

Traffic 

^ . markets for the proper handling^ of food prod- 

Congestion T-N- -1 1 • i 1 

nets. Distributers proclaim that they are do- 
ing all they can under present conditions. Although nearly 
every committee has recommended the building of terminals 
and wholesale markets, the enormous prospective cost and 
the fact that THE VARIOUS FACTORS WERE NOT 
ESPECIALLY INTERESTED have delayed definite action. 
The distributers and carriers have made little effort to 
co-operate in making an intensive study so as to improve 
present terminal conditions. The anticipated saving of time 
by motor truck delivery has been offset by traffic congestion 
in the streets, and delays to rail shipments have added to the 
perplexity. 

EXAMPLE — "Congestion in New York streets has increased to 
an alarming extent," is reported by the New York Railways Com- 
pany. "The number of trafific delays of five minutes or more has 
increased 300 per cent since July 1, 1917. Delays to cars from July 1 
amounted to 178,660 minutes, as compared with 70,484 in the same 
period last year. In November the total delays amounted to 36,167, 
almost double that of the same period last year. The average delay 
was nine minutes." 



(6) Unfortunate Public Opinion 

Populace It is unfair to blame wholesale and retail 

Blame distributers for the increased cost of food 

emen products. (See Page 28.) While there may be 
isolated cases of hoarding and profiteering among the many 
wholesalers, commission merchants and retailers, on the whole 
the industry is as economically and honestly conducted as 

20 



any other trade, and the men engaged in the business are as 
patriotically inclined as are men in other lines of business. 

(7) Newspaper Influence 

Does Not The public press has added to the consum- 

Improve. gj.»g perplexity by publishing cartoons and 

p ^ . ^ ° sensational articles regarding waste, hoard- 
ing and profiteering, which careful investiga- 
tion has shown to be untrue, or at least much exag- 
gerated ; and no retractions follow which may correct the 
mistaken belief produced by the original misstatements. Such 
articles are very harmful because they lead consumers to 
believe that the increased cost of living is entirely the fault 
of producers, distributers or carriers; hence their attitude, as 
described on Pages 22-23. 

(8) Present Distributers' Organization 

Extremely Wholesale receivers and retail distributers of food 
Varied products are represented by thirty individual asso- 

ciation. (See complete list on Pages 6-7.) Some of 
these associations deal in particular food products, while a few 
do propaganda work, such as improving conditions of the 
trade. 

Central The Food Problem Committee, after confer- 

Organization j-jj^p. with over a hundred leaders of numerous 
°^"^^ associations, suggested the formation of a Cen- 

tral Organization of all distributers, similar to those of the 
producers and carriers. 

A tentative organization was formed July 12th, and put on 
a permanent basis in November, 1917. It was called the 
"New York Food Distributers' Association" and was organ- 
ized to : 

1. Co-operate with the Federal, State and City Food Administra- 
tion Officieils. 

2. Study individual distributing problems. 

3. Give information to the public. 

4. Conduct trips through the marketing district and work out com- 
mon problems by inter-committees with the other Factors. 

21 



So Complicated It will require some time to perfect an 
Will Take Time efficient organization on account of the 
large number of distributers ; variety of 
languages spoken ; various methods of doing business and dif- 
ferent kinds of foods handled, and because many of these 
distributers are small and do not belong to any association. 
IT SHOULD BE THE ERNEST ENDEAVOR OF THE 
DISTRIBUTERS TO PERFECT THEIR INDIVIDUAL 
ORGANIZATION AND THEIR CENTRAL ASSOCIA- 
TION AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. 

But of Prime The Food Problem Committee considered 
Importance ^i^jg Central Organization of Distributers so 

desirable and necessary that it devoted a 
considerable portion of its time assisting them to perfect an 
Association which could effectually work out their problems 
and co-operate with the other FACTORS as well as with the 
Food Administration Officials. 



V — Consumers 

Recent meetings have been held by committees to hear 
consumers' ideas and complaints. Most of them have devel- 
oped the same line of information, which may be summarized 
as follows: 

1. Children are undernourished. 

2. Food is high and scarce. 

3. Middlemen are charging exorbitant profits. 

4. The State and City should: 

a. Buy and sell all food, or at least, necessary commodities, 
at cost. 

b. Establish terminal, municipal and public markets. 

Not Informed When asked about conditions pertaining 
as to Actual ^q methods and costs of production and 
, P distribution these people say they do not 

know, and have no means of finding out, 
the facts. They are told there are gamblers, speculators, 
hoarders and too many middlemen who should be eliminated, 
presumably by the State or otherwise, and they believe these 

22 



assertions. The increased cost of living is vital to eighty per 
cent of the population of New York, who today are havin.2: a 
difficult time to make their weekly wage pay the rent, buy 
what food and fuel they need and have a little left for clothing 
and ordinary pleasures of life. 

Much Said but Commissions, committees and investigators 

the Situation have been appointed and reports issued. 

Not Improved Regulative officials and the press have 

been vigilant against hoarders, gamblers, speculators and 
profiteers. Columns of this material are in the papers every 
month, but still THE SITUATION IS GROWING MORE 
AND MORE TENSE, AND DESPITE THIS GREAT 
VIGILANCE, THERE SEEMS TO BE LITTLE, IF ANY, 
IMPROVEMENT IN SECURING THE BEST METHODS 
OF DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION OF FOOD 
PRODUCTS. 

Still Waiting Consumers seem to think that the State or 
for Someone Q[^y ^^^ \^^y ^^^ gell food, eliminating the 

e ^, . middlemen and retailers and their profits. 

Something ^ 

CATCH-WORDS and PHRASES, such as 
"Terminal," "Municipal," "Public-markets" and "Ambu- 
lance-markets," predominate in the public mind. These 
expressions lead people to believe that SOMEBODY, SOME- 
WHERE, SOMEHOW and SOMETIME can get cheaper 
food for them. Has this ever been accomplished? Cannot 
more be achieved through efiPective co-operation of Producers, 
Manufacturers, Carriers, Distributers, Consumers and Educa- 
tional and Regulative Agencies? 

Many There are over twelve hundred Consumers' 

but Little Organizations in Greater New York, many 

Concentration of whom attempt to solve the Food Prob- 
lem. Most of these are formed for other 
purposes than dealing exclusively with this question, 
which has become incidental to their regular lines of work. 
It has been extremely difficult to organize consumers into 
groups, similar to those of the farmers, carriers and distribu- 
ters, because of various activities and differences in habits, cus- 
toms and nationalities. 

23 



CLASSIFICATION OF CONSUMERS' ORGANIZATIONS 

1. SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS 

a. Sectarian (include Church Clubs and Societies). 

b. Non-sectarian (include Settlements, Neighborhood Associa- 
tions, Y. M. and Y. W. C A., Y. M. and Y. W. H. A., and 
Temperance Organizations). 

c. Secret and Fraternal Societies. 

d. Foreign Societies (include Singing Clubs.) 

2. CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS 

(Include National, State, City, Religious and Privately Endowed 
Institutions). 

3. POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS 

(Include Suffrage, Anti-suffrage and Teachers' Organizations). 

4. EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

(Include Mothers' Clubs, Home Economics Associations and 
Young Peoples' Clubs). 

5. BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS 

(Include Chambers of Commerce, Taxpayers' Associations, Civic 
Clubs and Business Men's Clubs). 

VI and VII — Educational and Regulative 

Agencies 

Their Educational Agencies of the State comprise 

Personnel Colleges of Agriculture, State Schools of Agri- 
culture, High Schools of Agriculture, Federation of Farm 
Bureaus, State Department of Agriculture, State Department 
of Health, State Department of Education, the City Depart- 
ments of Health, Weights and Measures, and Education. 
The Regulative Agencies are represented by the State and 
City Departments of Health, Weights and Measures and 
Markets; and by the State Department of Agriculture. The 
Federal Food Commission is in ofifice as an Educational and 
Regulative Agency during the War period. 

Their The Educational Agencies are giving the lat- 

Functions gg^- scientific information on the best methods 
of production, manufacturing, transportation, marketing, dis- 
tribution and consumption of foods. 

24 



Regulative Agencies see that sanitary conditions prevail in 
food factories, wholesale and retail markets and terminals. 
They prevent misbranding of goods and the use of false 
weights and measures. The new Food Administration Offi- 
cials seek evidence of and attempt to prevent hoarding, 
profiteering and unequal distribution, and as near as the 
Committee can ascertain this is being accomplished. 

Handicapped Both the Educational and Regulative Agen- 
cy , _ cies are somewhat handicapped by politics. 
When a new administration enters office, 
another set of Regulative Officials is appointed, who are more 
or less affected by political influences. Even educational insti- 
tutions, depending for appropriations upon the State Legisla- 
ture, are influenced, to some extent, by political expediency. 



25 



PARTIAL LIST OF EDUCATIONAL AND 
REGULATIVE AGENCIES 

TEMPORARY FOR WAR'S DURATION 

I. FOOD ADMINISTRATION 

1. Federal Administrator. 

2. Federal Food Commission for New York State: 
A. State Food Administrator. 

P.. City Food Administrator. 
C. County Food Administrator. 

II. STATE FOOD COMMISSION 

1. Bureau of Production. 

2. Bureau of Conservation. 

3. Bureau of Markets and Transportation: 

A. Department of Complaints. 

B. Department of Price-fixing. 

C. Department of Trade Contact. 

III. FEDERAL MILK COMMISSION 



PERMANENT 

I. FARMS AND MARKETS COUNCIL 

1. Commissioner of Agriculture. 

2. Commissioner of Markets. 

3. Superintendent of Weights and Measures. 

4. Bureau of Co-operative Associations. 

5. Bureau of Animal Industry. 

II. CITY COMMISSIONER OF MARKETS 

1. Peoples' Council. 

III. CITY COMMISSIONER OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

IV. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 

L New York State. 

2. New York City: 

A. Bureau of Foods and Drugs. 

26 



V. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

1. Federal: 

A. Bureau of Chemistry (Foods). 

B. Bureau of Markets: 

a. New York City Branch. 

2. State: 

A. College of Agriculture and Domestic Science. 

B. Extension Department. 

C. Farm Bureaus: 

a. For farmers. 

b. For farmers' wives. 

VI. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 
1. Vocational Bureau: 

A. High Schools of Agriculture. 
B. High Schools of Domestic Science. 

VII. BUREAU OF LIBRARIES 
1. Extension Lectures. 

VIII. PRIVATE ENTERPRISES 

1. Agricultural Agents of: 

A. Railroads. 

B. Chambers of Commerce. 

C. Large Manufacturers. 

D. Large Distributers of Foods and Feeds. 

2. Dietitians employed by: 

A. Stove Manufacturers. 

B. Large Food Manufacturers. 

C. Gas and Electric Light Companies. 



27 



Complete Change in Conditions 

Why Food During the last fifty or seventy-five years (prin- 
Prices Are cipally since 1840), while the large cities in this 
ncreasing country and Europe have been growing, the 
established agricultural areas that produced food were sup- 
plemented by the opening up of new lands in the Middle West, 
Canada. Brazil, Argentine, South and Central Africa, Australia 
and Siberia. 

Food products, chiefly grains and meats, were produced on 
virgin, unfertilized lands. Emigrant labor was employed and 
subsequently there was cheap railroad and steamship trans- 
portation, so until recently (about 1905) THE PEOPLE IN 
CITIES HAVE BEEN FED ON FOOD PRODUCED AND 
SOLD AT A PRICE WHICH DID NOT TAKE INTO 
CONSIDERATION THE COST OF PRODUCTION AND 
THE VALUE OF PLANT FOOD CONTAINED IN 
CROPS WHICH MUST BE RETURNED TO THE SOIL 
TO MAINTAIN PRODUCTIVITY. 

Today conditions are changed. There is not much unclaimed 
virgin soil. Fertilizers, needed to maintain and augment soil 
productivity, are scarce and consequently increasing in price. 
Labor is scarce and high in price. Taxes, capital costs (higher 
land values) and transportation costs (because of longer dis- 
tances) have increased. The increased costs arising from 
changed conditions have resulted in increased food prices 
compared with those of former days when virgin soils pro- 
duced bountifully, when there were low land values, a plenti- 
ful supply of low-priced emigrant labor, cheap transportation 
and practically no overhead charges. 

The actual cost of distribution of food products, after they 
reach the city limits, has greatly increased since 1905 and is 
steadily increasing, due to fl) the crowded conditions of the 
population and traffic, (2) higher wages paid to the four hun- 
dred thousand persons employed in distribution and (3) lack 
of intensive, detailed study by carriers, distributers, consumers 
and educational and regulative agencies to see how each class 
of food products could be most efficiently distributed after 
reaching the city. 

28 



A View of the Situation 
Presented 

IN THE FOREGOING PAGES THE COMMITTEE HAS 
ENDEAVORED TO GIVE TO THE READER AN IDEA 
OF WHAT HAS BEEN DONE, THE PRESENT CONDI- 
TIONS, THE SCOPE OF THE FOOD PROBLEM AND 
THE CLASSIFICATION WHICH SEEMS LOGICAL. 
SOME COMMENT IS MADE AND PERTINENT QUES- 
TIONS ARE RAISED. THE COMMITTEE NOW 
MAKES SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS WHICH IT 
BELIEVES SHOULD BE ADOPTED. SOME TIME 
WILL BE REQUIRED TO PUT THESE INTO EFFECT, 
BUT THE COMMITTEE SEES NO OTHER WAY IN 
WHICH DESIRED RESULTS CAN BE OBTAINED. IT 
IS LEFT TO THE READER TO JUDGE WHETHER 
THEY ARE CORRECT AND PRACTICABLE. 



29 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

FIRST: 
Chart the City 

It is first necessary to show the New York City situation 
by preparing the following: 

1. A map of the Metropolitan Food Distributing Zone within 
a thirty-mile radius. 

2. A map on which are indicated railway terminals, steam- 
ship piers and kinds of food handled. 

3. A map showing location of establishments of wholesale 
receivers. 

4. A set of district maps (drawn on a scale of at least fifty 
feet to the inch), indicating by shading, colors, tacks and 
symbols : 

a. Nationality of consumers. 

b. Housing situations. 

c. Location and kinds of: 

1. Wholesale stores. 

2. Storage warehouses. 

3. Food factories. 

4. Retail stores. 

5. Hotels and restaurants. 

6. Milk stations. 

Fatal to Differences in traffic congestion, living conditions, 
Consider habits and diets of the twenty-eight nationalities in 
City as ^^^ York City make it evident that no uniform 
system of distribution or rule of consumption of 
food can be carried out to the satisfaction of such a cosmo 
politan population. 

30 



Suggestion of What a District Map Should Show 



TYPICAL SECTION 



\ 


s 


A 


1+ 


\ 


s 


\ 


12. 


A 


H 


\ 




;o 


\ 


VAUDCVILJ-E 



^ 


10 

n 

2 


^ 


7 

5 
1 







A MERIGANS 


PRCDOMI NATe 


H£Re: 












'(o 


S-Od 




VM( 




VI 




53 o 

VI 








3 

7 

5 


SCHOOL 




n 
1 






2 


Vdl 


Via 


Vill 


VIII 


VIM 


VI 


VI 


vACAN T 

i_ r 


/2 
15 


-1- 


7^ 






JEW 


S PR 


c 


D o M 


INATt 




H€RC 










t. 



STRecT 



H 1 6H 
PRKED 
BUYING 
DISTRICT 



5 

10 


■? 




^/li, 










VI 




^Jo 


^( 


VI 






n 

Uj 

< 

1- 
m 


GOAL 

CELLAR 


1 

8 




.v 




JO 
5 
1 

5 

H 


1+ 
/A 


VI 


VI 


VI 


// 






VI 








ar 


DRY 
STORAGE 
WAREHOUSE 








GE 


R^ 


UNS 




PR CDo/^l 1 


i^Ar^ 


HCftH 















iT-REET 



\ 


13 


\ 


7 


\ 


H 


v 


2 


A 


H 


Y 


io 


A 


lo 


\ 


7 



3 

o 



n 



n 



HoSPlTAU 



Ohurch 



IRISH ' PH£.D OMI NATE. H£/?£: 



VACANT 
LOT 



Movir S 



;6 



/o 



Buy live 



1 


T 


14 


/ 


3 


/ 


H 


/ 


5 


/ 


6 


/ 


14 


y 


2 


fj 



ITALIANS 



llo 


/ 


^ 


/ 


7 


/ 


3 


7 


K 


L 


2 


1 


6 


h 


5 


E...J 



/Vat/oa/alit/cs Indicated byColors Viz. 

American y/A/r£- Ker 



f\EY. 

l.GEN'L. GROtlER 
2 MEAT MARKET 
I 3.CHAiN STORt 
+ MII-K SToHt 
S. FRUITERER, 

b, OELICATETSSITN 

7 BAKERY 

a.BAKEHr LUNCH 



^ 


10 

2 


$ 


7 

1 + 
5 

1 



\ 


13 


\ 


7 


\ 


H 


V 


2 


A 


]4 


Y 


k> 


A 


To 


\ 


7 



HIGH 
PRICED 
BUYINS 
DISTRICT 



c—i 




PI 






> 








cil 

3 




i 

O 

n 



6 
7 


9 


V( 


J-/6 




VI 


VI 








Si a 


VI 


VI 








COAU 

CETllaR 


1 

8 


VI 






JO 
5 
1 

S 

H 


If 
/6 


VI 


V( 


VI 


// 














m 


DRY 
STORAGE 



GERMANS 



Street 



4 
H 
8 
5 














VI 


VI 


VI 


VI 


VI 


VACANT 
L.OT 


5 
1 

10 




Hospital 










5 

n 
1 




1 1 




Vll 


VI 


VI 


VI 


VI 


VI 


VI 


Movie S 




Church 
















7 1 1 " 


15 1 



IRISH "pReOOM/NATE H£/?£: 



I'?I8. 
ROM^N NUMERAtS INDICATE NUMBER 
OF STORIES /N 0UILD/NGS. 
SCALE :- ONE INCH ETaUALS lOO FEET. 



o / a 7-/=! / c T 



1 

14 
3 


L 
L 

1 


5 

14 
Z 


i 

L 
1 



ITAUANS 

PREDOMIWATE 



/^ 




"t 




7 




3 




H 




Z 


1 


lo 


h 


5 


E..../ 



Nationalities Indicated by Colors y it- 
American W/// TE 

Jews Blue 

Ge:rman .Yellow 

Irish Fink 

iTALif^Ns Shaded 



K. 



EY. 

'j. R£ST^URA/VT 

JO. coNFrorioN£-Hr 

J'3, DRUGS 
if A(DS£ 

^s: H ARaw ^« e 
/to. SALoo N 



IN GREATER NEW YORK THERE ARE 3,500 SECTIONS, EACH 
CONSISTING OF 40 TO 50 ACRES. THE VARIED CONDITIONS HAVE 
BEEN DESCRIBED. MUCH EMPHASIS HAS BEEN LAID ON THE 
FACT THAT WE MUST TREAT EACH DISTRICT SEPARATELY. 

THE ABOVE IS SIMPLY AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE DISTRICT 
MAPS WHICH WE RECOMMEND THAT THE FOOD DEPARTMENT OF 
THE CITY, ALONE, OR IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE STATE AND 
FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS, SHOULD PREPARE AT ONCE. COPIES 
CAN BE MADE FOR INTERESTED PARTIES. THEN A BASIS WILL 
BE ESTABLISHED TO: 

1. PERFECT LOCAL. DISTRICT AND CENTRAL ORGANIZATIONS 
OF CONSUMERS, WHICH WILL ENABLE THEM TO: 

(A) Secure an adequate amount of desirable food with the money 
they have at hand 

(B) Provide necessary food for the maintenance of those who are 

unable to provide for themselves. 

2. WORK OUT DETAILS OF: 

(A) Efficient distribution of particular commodities. 



(B) Shortages and surpluses. 

(C) Overcharging and profiteering. 

(D) System of budgets — diets. 

WE EMPHASIZE AGAIN THE FACT THAT THE CITY DISTRICT 
CONDITIONS ARE VARIED TO SUCH AN EXTENT AND THE PRES- 
ENT KNOWLEDGE IS SO LIMITED THAT LITTLE WILL OR CAN BE 
ACCOMPLISHED UNTIL THIS FUNDAMENTAL WORK IS DONE. 

The women borough chiefs and assembly district leaders say their 
work is handicapped severely because they do not have this basic informa- 
tion to guide them. 

IF IT BECOMES ADVISABLE THAT: 

(A) RETAIL DISTRIBUTION SHOULD BE SUPERVISED BY 
THE GOVERNMENT, 

(B) RATIONING SHOULD TAKE PLACE, 

(C) CERTAIN SUBSTITUTIONS BE MADE, 

THEN MAPPING OF THE CITY, WITH AN INDICATION OF NATION- 
ALITIES AND A LIST OF DISTRIBUTERS, WILL BE ABSOLUTELY 
ESSENTIAL. 



PROBLEM COMMITTEE of THE MERCHANTS' 



Failure Consumption and distribution of food in New 

in the Past York City must be worked out by local districts 
with each different nationality as a basis. DUE TO 
LACK OF ORGANIZED EFFORT THIS HAS NOT BEEN 
DONE AND HAS CAUSED MUCH OF THE CHAOTIC 
CONDITIONS IN WHICH WE FIND THE FOOD 
PROBLEM. 

Prepare These maps should be prepared AT ONCE. 

Detailed either by the City Market Department, in 

J^^P^ „ , conjunction with the Health and also Police 

Immediately ^ ■' , , ^- o . t- i 

Departments, or by the City, btate and fed- 
eral Food Commissioners. No delay should be made in hav- 
ing basic maps prepared which will assist an Organization 
of Consumers in the working out of particular food problems 
by inter-committees. Duplicates of these maps can be made 
for the use of numerous organizations. Then the Food Con- 
trol Officials can more readily take care of complaints of 
overcharging and unequal distributing, and give information 
as to prices, substitutions, shortages and surpluses. IF IT 
BECOMES NECESSARY TO RATION THE PEOPLE 
THESE MAPS MUST CERTAINLY BE MADE. 



SECOND : 
Central Organization of Consumers 

Correct While there are over twelve hundred Consumers' 
Aims Organizations in different lines of activity, as 

indicated on Page 24, only a few are devoting their entire time 
to food work. There is no general Organization of Con- 
sumers to undertake a solution of the Food Question. The 
chief problems are: 

(1) TO SECURE AN ADEQUATE AMOUNT OF DE- 
SIRABLE FOOD FOR THE MONEY THEY HAVE AT 
HAND. 

(2) TO PROVIDE NECESSARY FOOD FOR THE 
MAINTENANCE OF THOSE WHO ARE UNABLE TO 
PROVIDE FOR THEMSELVES. 

31 



Form The Consumers' Organizations should immed- 

Central iately form a Central Association made up of 

ssocia ion ^^^^^ ^^ more representatives from each impor- 
tant agency. This can be done by a few leaders of the 
present Consumers' Organizations calling an initial meeting, 
or they can be assisted in starting by the State Food Com- 
mission, City Market Commissioner and Greater New York 
Food Council. The Executive Committee should meet regu- 
larly in a permanent office and employ an experienced staff. 
With the City charted, each district should be organized into 
local units to obtain information as to its food demands ; its 
retail and wholesale distribution centers ; be in a position to 
intelligently state its case to regulative officials, distributers, 
carriers and producers and transmit correct information to 
its people regarding what they should do. 

SO LONG AS THE CONSUMERS CONTINUE TO 
WAIT FOR SOME OF THE OTHER FACTORS, THE 
STATE, OR THE CITY, TO DO SOMETHING FOR 
THEM, WHICH THEY MUST DO FOR THEMSELVES, 
THEY WILL PROBABLY REMAIN IN THE PRESENT 
UNSATISFACTORY CONDITION. 

The producers and distributers are endeavoring to produce, 
sell and distribute their products. The consumers must not 
expect the producers and distributers to look out for the par- 
ticular interests of the former. 

The work of the Consumers' Organization (local and cen- 
tral) should include: 

1. Investigation of 

a. Exorbitant prices. 

b. Causes of artificial and real shortages. 

2. Establishment of a Permanent Bureau of Information in 
each local district to disseminate correct and up-to-date 
information on: 

a. Available supply of food. 

b. Prices of all food commodities. 

c. Most economic purchases. 

d. Variations in diets, 
c. Use of budgets. 

32 



Misleading An Official Food Information Bureau should 
and be established by consumers and distributers 

Sensational ^^^ ^^ agreement obtained with the press 
News • r 1 

whereby it will not publish articles on food 

conditions without telephoning to the Information Bureau. 
In this way undue excitement will be avoided and the public 
may be informed as to the scarcity and surplus of foods and 
when each food product will be available in its respective 
season. This is a matter w^hich must be taken up for each 
district separately because prices vary with the locality and 
distance from the wholesale markets. 



THIRD: 
Inter-Committees for Results 

Must The seven Factors of the Food Problem know 

Understand little of each other's problems. How could 

e ai s o thev understand the e:eneral situation? Each 

Each Problem " . , ^ _, ,^. 

Factor of the Food Problem (1) producer, (2) 

manufacturer, (3) carrier. (4) distributer, (5) consumer, (6) 
educational agency and (7) regulative agency must be or- 
ganized into local units and Central Associations to : 

1. Understand its own local problems. 

2. Understand the problems in neighboring districts. 

3. Understand some of the problems of other factors con- 
nected with the Food Problem. 

4. Understand the general situation. 

5. ARRANGE TO BRING FOOD FROM THE PRODUC- 
ERS TO THE CONSUMERS IN THE MOST EFFI- 
CIENT AND ECONOMIC WAY, WHETHER IT 
TAKES NONE, ONE OR MORE DISTRIBUTERS. 

This cannot be made too emphatic. It is vital and funda- 
mental. Who but the farmers themselves can tell whet^e^ 
it is wise to raise one crop in preference to another, sell 

33 



calves for veal or raise dairy cows ; sell crops or feed them to 
stock? Outside agencies can foretell the general visible sup- 
ply and demand, but the farmer must study his supply of 
labor and capital, his soil factors, his markets and be gov- 
erned accordingly. 

Business men in the city and the daily press have been over- 
anxious to advise the farmer. Much of this counsel has been 
uneconomic and even ridiculous, having a tendency to disgust 
the farmer and make him lose confidence in advice emanating 
from the city. On the other hand, and in a similar manner, 
many enthusiastic, patriotic but grossly misinformed persons 
have proffered advice without possessing the necessary in- 
formation on transportation, distribution, consumption and 
food regulation. We must, therefore, study conditions in their 
proper relation and seek the advice of those who know actual 
conditions by real contact with each individual Factor. 

General confusion exists because the whole Food Problem 
is considered at random as occasion arises or a complaint is 
lodged. Conferences are called to discuss or even decide what 
farmers should plant, what consumers should eat and how 
the distributers should handle food. 



INTER-COMMITTEES 

When the consumers are organized as a separate Factor 
into Local, District and Central Associations, and New York 
City districts well mapped, there will have been established a 
basis whereby inter-committees representing two, three, four 
or all seven Factors can get together to accomplish results. 
They will then be in a position to know real conditions and 
put into force the results of their analyses and conclusions as 
to changes, while today the majority of conferences are pro- 
ductive of little advancement, and despite the reports, investi- 
j:(ations and work of committees and commissions, the Food 
Problem is NOT being solved. 



34 



Details Must Be Worked Out 

Extravagant statements are being made (and have con- 
stantly been made for ten years) as to the establishment of 
terminal, wholesale, retail and public markets. 



OUTSIDE COMMITTEE CANNOT GIVE CORRECT 

SOLUTION 

This Committee has not recommended any radical changes 
in the present market system, not because it is conservative, 
but because after its close study of the situation for nearly 
a year it does not know, nor can it ascertain that anyone 
else knows, for a certainty, whether terminal, wholesale, retail 
and public markets would reduce the cost of distribution. It 
might be increased. Borough President Marks, in his Report, 
counsels the City to go very slowly lest millions of dollars 
be spent in building markets which may not reduce the cost 
of distribution one cent. 

The Commiteee realizes that the present system of distribu- 
tion is very costly and that improvements can be made. Past 
experience has shown us that radical suggestions have not 
secured any useful changes nor lessened the cost of distri- 
bution. The Committee believes that the only way to find out 
conditions and secure results is to follow the recommendations 
described above. 

After each Factor has become organized, an intensive and 
detailed study must be made by representatives of carriers, 
distributers and Federal, State and City Departments of Mar- 
kets, of how each particular product, such as potatoes, milk, 
butter, eggs and vegetables, IS NOW RECEIVED AND 
DISTRIBUTED. When this is done, it will be apparent 
where improvements can be made. 

If improvements arc found necessary they will be based on 
facts and will receive the support of the majority of each 
Factor interested to have changes brought about. Without 
such support no change will probably ever actually be made. 

35 



It may be possible that more distribution points than the 
one hundred and twenty-seven terminals now in use will be 
needed ; that they should be more widely distributed through- 
out the City, or that large terminal markets would be ad- 
vantageous. 

If we really want to do something we must STOP W^AIT- 
ING FOR RADICAL SUGGESTIONS and START IM- 
MEDIATELY to work out our Problem in the manner recom- 
mended above. 

Respectfully submitted, 



FOOD PROBLEM COMMITTEE 

John H. Love, Chairman 
John C. Orcutt, Secretary 

William Fellowes Morgan S. Frederic Taylor 

J. F. Bermingham Dr. O. S. Morgan 

Lewis E. Pierson Harold Godwin 

Lincoln Cromwell • Horace Havemeyer 

W. E. Evans, Special Assistant 



56 



INDEX 

I. INTRODUCTION 

1. Merchants' Association interested. 

2. Appointment of Food Problem Committee. 

3. Personnel of Committee. 

4. Executive Staff. 

II. THE PLAN PURSUED 

III. EXAMINATION OF REPORTS OF PREVIOUS COMMIS- 

SIONS AND com;mittees 

1. Summary of twelve reports made in the last ten years. 

IV. PERSONAL INTERVIEWS WITH FARMERS, RAILROAD 

MEN, DISTRIBUTERS, LEADERS OF CONSUMERS, 
AND EDUCATIONAL AND REGULATIVE AGENCIES 

V. ANALYSIS OF THE FOOD PROBLEM 

1. Its Scope. 

2. Particular Features of each Factor of the Food Problem: 

A. The Producers: 

a. Important Problems. 

I. Inadequate Working Capital. 
II. Scarcity of Labor: 

1. Reported demand. 

2. Our endeavor to supply labor. 

3. Multiplicity of Labor Bureaus becomes 

confusing. 

4. Causes of the Labor Shortage: 

A. Higher Wages attract. 

B. Trend to the cities. 

C. Retiring farmers go to villages. 

D. Enlistment of men. 
III. Uncertain marketing conditions: 

b. Organization of farmers. 

B. Manufacturers: 
a. Activities. 

I. Preserving for future use. 
II. Conserving By-products. 
III. Converting raw materials into edible food. 

38 



b. Temporary Handicaps. 

c. Interlock with Distributers. 

d. Organization of Manufacturers. 

C. Carriers: 

a. Wide separation of producing areas and consuming 

centers. 

b. Congestion of freight and passenger traffic. 

c. Federal control of railroads. 

d. Organization of Carriers. 

D. Distributers: 

a. Large distributing area. 

b. Varied nationalities. 

c. Congestion exists. 

d. Comparison with European cities. 

e. Present facilities. 

f. Unfortunate public opinion. 

g. Newspaper influence. 

h. Distributers' Organization. 

E. The Consumers: 

a. Consumers' idea of the situation. 

b. Causes for existing condition: 

I. Limited information. 
IL No improvement, 
in. Waiting for outside assistance. 

F. Educational and Regulative Agencies: 

a. Personnel. 

b. Functions. 

c. Handicap by politics. 

d. List of these Agencies. 

3. Changed conditions in producing areas of the world. 
A. Causes of higher food prices. 

VL RECOMMENDATIONS 
I. Chart the City. 
II. Consumers must organize in local and central Associations. 

III. Inter-committees of all Factors can solve the Problem. 

IV. Details must be worked out. 



39 



HD Commerce and industry 
9008 association of Nev York, 
N5C6 problem committee 

Heport of the Food 
problem committee 



Food 



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